01.The effectiveness of botulinum toxin on spasticity and gait of hemiplegic patients after stroke:
A systematic review and meta-analysis.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the evidence supporting the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) injections in lower limb of hemiplegic patients, after stroke or cerebrovascular accident, and their gait analysis. This study included: randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) or cluster trials, clinical trials of various phases (I-III), interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three data points before and after the intervention, controlled before and after (CBA) studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case-control and multicentred studies. The patients included in these studies had similar characteristics: age over 18 years, history of stroke and following hemiplegia, minimum modified Ashworth scale (MAS) score of 2 and duration since stroke over 6 months. The number of studies included in this review was 21. A meta-analysis was performed on a fraction of them depending on the reported index and the methodology as reported in detail in the results section. MAS score, following BTA injections, was significantly improved (Hedges' g: -1.17; 95% CI: -1.66, 0.67; p < 0.001). The same applied for the 10 Meter Walk Test (MWT) (-0.35; 95% CI: -0.68, -0.02; p = 0.016). The gait velocity showed improvement, yet without statistical significance (0.27; 95% CI: -0.09, 0.63; p = 0.285). We concluded that botulinum toxin injections showed effectiveness on lower limb hypertonia reduction of hemiplegic patients after stroke. Apart from significantly reducing the MAS scores, 10 MWT was also improved. However, more research is required in order to determine the advancement in specific gait and posture parameters. Continue reading...
02.Implementation of Christian Orthodox fasting improves plasma adiponectin concentrations compared with time-restricted eating in overweight premenopausal women
The exact mechanisms mediating the metabolic effects of Orthodox fasting remain unclear. Plasma adiponectin, biochemical and anthropometrical data were evaluated in 55 Orthodox fasters (OF) and 42 time-restricted eating controls (all women, mean age 47.8 years) at three time points: baseline, end of the dietary intervention (7 weeks) and 5 weeks after participants returned to their typical dietary habits (12 weeks from baseline). In the OF group, there was an increase in adiponectin values at 12 weeks compared with baseline (9815.99 vs 8983.52 mg/ml, p = 0.02) and a reduction in body fat mass between baseline and 12 weeks (35.44 vs 32.17%, p = 0.004) and between 7 and 12 weeks (35.33 vs 32.17%, p = 0.003). In the same group, an inverse correlation between adiponectin and waist circumference values was observed over the entire study period. Our results provide novel evidence that Orthodox fasting has favourable metabolic effects related to improved adiponectin concentrations. Continue reading...
03.Vitamin D equilibrium affects sex-specific changes in lipid concentrations during Christian Orthodox fasting
We aimed to evaluate sex differences in changes of lipid profiles in a cohort of metabolically healthy adults following Orthodox fasting (OF), as well as to assess a potential role of vitamin D status in mediating these variations. 45 individuals (24 premenopausal females, 53.3 %) with mean age 48.3 ± 9.1 years and mean Body Mass Index 28.7 ± 5.8 kg/m2 were prospectively followed for 12 weeks. Anthropometry, dietary and biochemical data regarding serum lipids, and vitamin D status were collected at baseline, 7 weeks after the implementation of OF, and 5 weeks after fasters returned to their standard dietary habits (12 weeks from baseline). According to 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] measurements, participants were divided into two groups: those with concentrations above and below the median of values. Females with 25(OH)D concentrations below the median manifested a non-significant reduction by approximately 15 % in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol during the fasting period, followed by a significant increase 5 weeks after OF cessation (170.7 vs. 197.5 and 99.6 vs. 121.0 mg/dl respectively, p < 0.001). In contrast, males with 25(OH)D levels below the median demonstrated an inverse, non-significant trend of increase in lipid concentrations during the whole study period. Our findings suggest strikingly different inter-gender lipid responses to a dietary model of low-fat, mediated by vitamin D status. Further studies are necessary to reveal the underlying mechanisms and assess the importance of these differences with respect to cardiovascular health and the benefit of vitamin D supplementation strategies.
04.Effects of Christian Orthodox Fasting Versus Time-Restricted Eating on Plasma Irisin Concentrations Among Overweight Metabolically Healthy Individuals
Irisin has been recently identified as an adipomyokine produced during physical activity and involved in the browning of adipose tissue. Despite the emerging evidence suggesting an inverse relationship between irisin plasma concentrations and adverse metabolic outcomes, the exact impact of diet on irisin levels remains obscure. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of two dietary patterns, Christian Orthodox fasting (OF) and 16:8 time-restricted eating (TRE), on circulating irisin levels among overweight, metabolically healthy, adults. Plasma irisin, glucose and lipid parameters, calcium homeostasis, and anthropometry were evaluated in 29 Orthodox fasters and 14 age and body mass index (BMI)-matched TRE controls (mean age and BMI, 48.8 years and 28.7 kg/m2, respectively) at three, distinct time points-before the implementation of the energy-restricted diets (baseline), at the end of the dietary intervention (7 weeks) and 5 weeks after participants returned to their typical dietary habits (12 weeks from baseline). Repeated measures analysis was applied to assess differences between the two groups and the effect of several indices on irisin levels at all three time points. At 12 weeks, the OF group manifested higher irisin concentrations compared with both its baseline values (64.3 ± 54.4 vs. 43.6 ± 42.2 ng/mL, p = 0.01) and those of the TRE group at the same time point (64.3 ± 54.4 vs. 44.2 ± 26.6 ng/mL, p = 0.04). Glycemic, lipid, and anthropometric parameters were not found to correlate with irisin levels. In contrast, parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations at 12 weeks correlated with irisin concentrations (p = 0.04), indicating that lower values of irisin are expected for higher PTH measurements. The findings of this pilot study suggest favorable long-term effects of OF on irisin levels. The interplay between irisin, PTH, and diet warrants further investigation. Continue reading...
05.Predictive value of a novel pragmatic tool for post-stroke aspiration risk: The Functional Bedside Aspiration Screen
Background: There is still a strong need for an optimal clinician-friendly screening tool for the identification of aspiration risk in stroke patients. In this study, we present the development of a novel, context-specific screening tool for the prediction of aspiration risk on recent stroke survivors, the Functional Bedside Aspiration Screen (FBAS), and examine its construct validity, reliability with the predictive values toward pragmatic patients' outcomes.
Methods: We conducted a prospective validation study of 104 acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to clinical wards in a tertiary university hospital. A group of experts developed and administered the FBAS 10-point scale to all patients. Outcome measures were compared with those of the validated Yale Swallow Protocol (YSP, reference measure) and health indicators.
Key results: A strong association was found between the FBAS cutoff criterion and the YSP (Pearson χ2 = 54.92, P < .001). A score of ≤8 on the FBAS presented with 93.3% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity in deeming patient with reduced safety for oral nutrition (AUC = 0.934, CI = 0.884-0.985). An inverse relationship was found between performance on the FBAS and in-hospital and long-term outcome indicators. Patients who failed the FBAS were 1.82 times more likely to develop aspiration pneumonia (95% CI = 1.42-2.35) and 1.35 times more likely to develop pneumonia within 3 months postonset (95% CI = 1.15-1.59).
Conclusions and inferences: The FBAS is a potentially useful tool for timely prediction of aspiration risk and health outcome in acute stroke.
Keywords: acute stroke; aspiration risk; health outcome; pneumonia; swallow screen. Continue reading...
06.Vascular endothelial growth factor for the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis:
An experimental study in canines
Aim: To evaluate the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) with the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
Methods: In 30 mature beagles (6 groups of 5 beagles) ONFH was induced cryosurgically and one of the following solutions was administered locally in the femoral head (FH) in each group: Single injection of 500 μg VEGF (t-VEGFμ group); single injection of 500 ng VEGF (t-VEGFn group); continuous delivery of 500 μg VEGF through osmotic micropump (t-VEGFpump-μ group); continuous delivery of 500 ng VEGF through osmotic micropump (t-VEGFpump-n group); single injection of 0.9% sodium chloride (t-NS group), while one group that served as control group did not receive any local solution (No-t group). FHs were retrieved 12 wk postoperatively, underwent decalcification and hematoxylin/eosin and toluidine blue staining. In two canines per group, one half of FH was processed without decalcification and stained with modified Masson Trichrome. Histological sections were observed by light microscopy and measured with a semi-automatized bone histomorphometry system and Bone Volume/Total Volume (BV/TV), Marrow Volume/Total Volume (MaV/TV), and Trabecular Thickness (TbTh) were assessed. Standard and robust tests (Welch, Brown Forsythe) of analysis of variance along with multiple comparisons, were carried out among the categories.
Results: The untreated (No-t) group had signs of osteonecrosis, whereas the VEGF groups revealed reversal of the osteonecrosis. Statistical analysis of the decalcified specimens revealed a significantly better BV/TV ratio and a higher TbTh between the VEGF treatment groups (except the t-VEGFn group) and the No-t group or the control t-NS group. Single dose 500 μgVEGF group had significantly better BV/TV ratio and higher TbTh when compared to the No-t group (50.45 ± 6.18 vs 29.50 ± 12.27, P = 0.002 and 151.44 ± 19.07 vs 107.77 ± 35.15, P = 0.161 respectively) and the control t-NS group (50.45 ± 6.18 vs 30.9 ± 6.67, P = 0.004 and 151.44 ± 19.07 vs 107.14 ± 35.71, P = 0.151 respectively). Similar differences were found for the prolonged VEGF delivery/pump groups of 500 μg and 500 ng. Analysis of the totality of specimens (decalcified/non-decalcified) enhanced the aforementioned differences and additionally revealed significant differences in the comparison of the TbTh.
Conclusion: In an experimental model of ONFH in canines it was found that local treatment with VEGF leads to bone tissue remodeling and new bone formation.
Keywords: Animal model; Avascular necrosis; Femoral head; Osteogenesis; Osteonecrosis; Vascular endothelial growth factor. Continue reading...
07.Evaluating New Approaches of Intervention in Reading Difficulties in Students with Dyslexia:
The ilearnRW Software Application
The aim of this paper is to increase knowledge and understanding on how the implementation of language content through specialized software, such as the “Integrated Intelligent Learning Environment for Reading and Writing-iLearnRW”, can enhance learning during intervention procedures to enhance reading skills for children with dyslexia.The iLearnRW software is a newly designed tool that makes use of innovative technology and provides individualized intervention through games that incorporate learning activities, addressing those language areas that are most challenging for children with dyslexia in a highly entertaining and motivating way. Individualized intervention is provided through an underlying user profile, which incorporates these language features and is constantly updated as the child uses the software playing games, presenting language material selected based on his difficulties and recording his progress. A group of 78 students (52 male, 26 female) diagnosed with dyslexia, aged between 9 and 11 years old, was assessed for phonological, morphological and vocabulary skills. The students logged in the iLearnRW software on a mean of 14.18 days over a six-month intervention. After the 6-month intervention, the students were assessed once again on the same skills so as to establish the tool’s effectiveness.The results’ analysis revealed the following: (i) there was a strong constructional linkage between the profile entries of the sample, the language content of the tasks of the screening test as well of the games and its effectiveness in the students’ performance; (ii) the students who received specific guidance by their teachers, obtained higher success rates in most of the games than the students without any guidance, and (iii) the quantity of the language content and the time playing were not correlated with the students’ performance in the software’s games. Continue reading...
08.Primary High-Grade Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer:
High NFκB Expression in Tumor Specimens Distinguishes Patients Who are at Risk for Disease Progression
To investigate the potential prognostic role of NFκB expression in primary high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with primary high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received induction and maintenance BCG therapy were retrospectively included. Recurrence and progression were histologically proven. Intensity and extent of immunochemistry were assessed. The final evaluation of the NFκB staining was done by combining intensity and extent as ΄΄product΄΄ and expressing it as ΄΄low NFκΒ expression΄΄ or ΄΄high NFκB expression΄΄. Epidemiological, pathological, clinical parameters and NFκB expression were statistically analyzed for recurrence (REC), progression (PR), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). NFκB is significantly associated with disease progression (p < 0,001 in univariate analysis and p = 0,001, Odds Ratio = 14,484, 95% Confidence Interval = 3187-65,821 in multivariate analysis), but not with recurrence. The median value of NFκB expression as ΄΄product΄΄ is significantly higher for the patients with progression in comparison to patients with recurrence only (p = 0,003) and patients without recurrence or progression (p = 0,001). Patients' age is significantly associated (p = 0,001 in univariate analysis and p = 0,003, Odds Ratio = 1273, 95% Confidence Interval = 1086-1492 in multivariate analysis) with disease recurrence. High NFκB expression in primary high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, treated with postoperative intravesical BCG immunotherapy, could represent an unfavorable prognostic factor. Continue reading...
09.Heterotopic ossification after the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7
Aim: To present the incidence of heterotopic ossification after the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7) for the treatment of nonunions.
Methods: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) promote bone formation by auto-induction. Recombinant human BMP-7 in combination with bone grafts was used in 84 patients for the treatment of long bone nonunions. All patients were evaluated radiographicaly for the development of heterotopic ossification during the standard assessment for the nonunion healing. In all patients (80.9%) with radiographic signs of heterotopic ossification, a CT scan was performed. Nonunion site palpation and ROM evaluation of the adjacent joints were also carried out. Factors related to the patient (age, gender), the nonunion (location, size, chronicity, number of previous procedures, infection, surrounding tissues condition) and the surgical procedure (graft and fixation type, amount of rhBMP-7) were correlated with the development of heterotopic ossification and statistical analysis with Pearsons χ 2 test was performed.
Results: Eighty point nine percent of the nonunions treated with rhBMP-7, healed with no need for further procedures. Heterotopic bone formation occurred in 15 of 84 patients (17.8%) and it was apparent in the routine radiological evaluation of the nonunion site, in a mean time of 5.5 mo after the rhBMP-7 application (range 3-12). The heterotopic ossification was located at the femur in 8 cases, at the tibia in 6, and at the humerus in οne patient. In 4 patients a palpable mass was present and only in one patient, with a para-articular knee nonunion treated with rhBMP-7, the size of heterotopic ossification affected the knee range of motion. All the patients with heterotopic ossification were male. Statistical analysis proved that patient's gender was the only important factor for the development of heterotopic ossification (P = 0.007).
Conclusion: Heterotopic ossification after the use of rhBMP-7 in nonunions was common but it did not compromise the final clinical outcome in most cases, and affected only male patients.
a potential biomarker of unfavorable prognosis in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a multifunctional peptide exerting its effects via receptors A and B. ET-1 and its receptors, endothelin axis (ET axis), play a promoting role in cancer biology. Alterations of proteins of ET axis have been detected in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMMIBC). The objective of this study is to investigate the potential role of ET-1 tumor expression as a biomarker of prognosis, compared to other prognostic parameters (epidemiologic and pathologic), in NMMIBC. We prospectively included 40 consecutive, primary, high-grade NMMIBC patients. Tumor specimens after initial transurethral resection were stained immunohistochemically for ET-1. The ET-1 evaluation of expression was based on staining intensity (SI) of ET-1. SI was classified according to an arbitrary four-tiered scale (negative = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, strong = 3). Epidemiologic and pathologic parameters were analyzed, using univariate and multivariate statistics, for disease progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). ET-1 overexpression (SI = 3) was the unique parameter which associated significantly, both in univariate (log-rank test, p = 0.033) and multivariate (Cox regression analysis, p = 0.045, HR = 4.849, 95 % CI: 1.039-22.624) analysis, with an increased hazard ratio of progression. ET-1 overexpression (SI = 3) was also the unique parameter which associated, marginally significantly in univariate analysis (log-rank test, p = 0.056) and highly significantly in multivariate analysis (Cox regression analysis, p = 0.005, HR = 7.001, 95 % CI: 1.782-27.501), with an increased hazard ratio of death. Overexpression of ET-1 may be a potential biomarker of unfavorable prognosis in NMMIBC patients.
11.Hysteroscopy in women with abnormal uterine bleeding:
a meta-analysis on four major endometrial pathologies
Purpose: To determine the accuracy of hysteroscopy in diagnosing endometrial cancer, hyperplasia, polyps and submucous myomas.
Methods: Relevant articles were retrieved from the MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library (1986-2011). Studies were selected blindly. Results for diagnostic accuracy were extracted to form separate 2 × 2 tables (for endometrial cancer, hyperplasia, polyps and submucous myomas). A summary sensitivity and specificity point reflected the average accuracy observed. Summary ROCs (SROCs) were also calculated according to the HSROC model.
Results: For endometrial cancer, the estimated sensitivity was 82.6% (95% CR 66.9-91.8%) and the specificity was 99.7% (95% CR 98.1-99.9%). For endometrial hyperplasia, sensitivity was 75.2% (95% CR 55.4-88.1 %), while specificity was 91.5% (95% CR 85.7-95.0%). For endometrial polyps, sensitivity was 95.4% (95% CR 87.4-98.4%) and specificity was 96.4% (95% CR 93.7-98.0%). Finally, for submucous myomas, sensitivity was estimated to 97.0% (95% CR 89.8-99.2%) and specificity to 98.9% (95% CR 93.3-99.8%).
Conclusions: Diagnostic accuracy for hysteroscopy is high for endometrial cancer, polyps and submucous myomas, but only moderate for endometrial hyperplasia. Continue reading...
12.Specific learning difficulties:
a retrospective study of their co morbidity and continuity as early indicators of mental disorders
Background: Specific Learning difficulties constitute a continuity of complex disorders, which unfold across the lifespan and are associated with a wide range of mental disorders. In order to determine the importance of specific learning difficulties as an underlying factor in various mental disorders, we investigated associations between mental disorders and factors related to learning difficulties, poor family and school environment, and social and psycho-emotional disorders.
Methods: This retrospective study is based on data from 835 case histories of adults who were treated at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University Hospital in Ioannina, Greece, between 1992 and 2008. The examination of the early (co-)occurrence of specific disorders was based on the ICD-10 classification of mental disorders. LogLinear analysis showed that all models retained 2nd or 3rd order effects with p-values >0.8 for all estimated likelihood ratios.
Results: Patients with specific learning difficulties, who grew up in a socially disturbed environment, and manifested behavioral problems (aggression, alcoholism, and isolation or running away from home) were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia than with any other mental disorder. In some cases, the profiles of these patients also included family problems such as parental loss or alcoholism.
Conclusions: Significant association between learning and other disorders in adult psychiatric patients' developmental profile has been indicated. Furthermore, a specific association between specific learning difficulties, environmental problems, and schizophrenia corroborates the continuity and complexity of these disorders at higher developmental stages. The results from this study can be utilized in the study of mental disorder etiology, raising the possibility that the early treatment of the learning or other disorders could reduce children's likelihood of developing mental disorders in adulthood. Continue reading...
13.Wavelet analysis for detection of phasic electromyographic activity in sleep:
influence of mother wavelet and dimensionality reduction
Phasic electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep is characterized by brief muscle twitches (duration 100-500ms, amplitude four times background activity). High rates of such activity may have clinical relevance. This paper presents wavelet (WT) analyses to detect phasic EMG, examining both Symlet and Daubechies approaches. Feature extraction included 1s epoch processing with 24 WT-based features and dimensionality reduction involved comparing two techniques: principal component analysis and a feature/variable selection algorithm. Classification was conducted using a linear classifier. Valid automated detection was obtained in comparison to expert human judgment with high (>90%) classification performance for 11/12 datasets. Continue reading...
14.Is there any difference in carotid stenosis between male and female patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting?
Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death in women. Significant gender differences have been reported among patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease. The aim of this study is to examine if the female sex is a predisposing factor for carotid stenosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients. We studied 965 CABG patients, 796 males and 169 females. We combined the gender with risk factors predicting carotid disease as a history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), left main (LM) disease and advanced age. We compared the incidence of carotid disease for each gender against known risk factors, which are history of CVA, PVD, LM and advanced age. In our study, there was not a statistically significant difference for the presence of carotid disease between males and females undergoing CABG. However, patients with a history of CVA, with PVD and older age were at greater risk for carotid stenosis. We conclude that the female sex is not a predictive factor for carotid stenosis in CABG patients. Continue reading...
15.Circulating matrix metalloproteinase 3 due to myocardial ischemia
Background: Experimental data suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-3 have a central role in the remodeling period after a myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study was to use an experimental small-animal model to investigate the fluctuation in MMP-3 levels occurring in vivo after an acute MI.
Methods: We studied 13 New Zealand white rabbits weighing between 3 and 4 kg. After anesthetizing the animals, we performed a tracheotomy and induced an acute MI in 10 of the animals by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 minutes. The remaining 3 rabbits constituted the control group. Three hours after reperfusion, blood samples were taken for biomedical analyses.
Results: Three hours after the artificially induced acute MI, serum MMP-3 levels were decreased by almost 50%. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations were increased greatly (90-fold) after MI, further validating the efficiency of our experimental in vivo model of acute MI.
Conclusion: Combining the data, we demonstrated that acute MI caused an early reduction in MMP-3 levels. The range of MMP-3 reduction is limited compared with other factors predicting MI, such as cTnI, which increases its usefulness. We demonstrated, however, that plasma fluctuation in MMP-3 levels could be used as a supplementary independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. This acute MI model used in our controlled setting proved to be a reliable and safe method for conducting in vivo studies. Continue reading...
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Feasibility study of IoT telemonitoring for elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results of the Greek pilot of the ACTIVAGE multicenter randomised control trial.
George Dafoulas, Christina Karaberi, Sofia Segkouli, George
Dimakopoulos, Konstantinos Votis, Dimitrios Tzovaras & Alexandra Bargiota
Endocrine abstracts May 2021 Vol 73 ISSN 1479- 6848
Sex-specific variations in lipid concentrations following a low-fat diet are mediated by vitamin D status: a 12-week prospective dietary intervention study among Christian Orthodox fasters.
Spyridon Karras, Theocharis Koufakis, Lilian Adamidou, Georgios Dimakopoulos, Paraskevi Karalazou, Katerina Thisiadou, Alkiviadis Bais5, Themistoklis Tzotzas, Kali Makedou, Eleni Manthou & Kalliopi Kotsa
Endocrine abstracts May 2021 Vol 73 ISSN 1479- 6848
Effects of Christian Orthodox versus intermittent fasting on plasma irisin concentrations in overweight adults.
Spyridon Karras, Theocharis Koufakis, Lilian Adamidou, Georgios Dimakopoulos, Paraskevi Karalazou, Katerina Thisiadou, Kali Makedou & Kalliopi Kotsa
Endocrine abstracts May 2021 Vol 73 ISSN 1479- 6848